The psychosocial and economic burden of genital warts among women assisted in six sexual and reproductive health clinics in Brazil


  • Mônica Gomes de Almeida
  • Antônio Márcio Tavares Thomé
  • José Berilo Lima Filho


reproductive health, health and costs, genital warts


Introduction: World Health Organization estimates that 291 million women worldwide will have a human papillomavirus infection. Treatment for genital warts brings discomfort and may be stressful. Objective: The objectives are to estimate the psychological burden of genital warts and to estimate its economic burden in six reproductive health clinics in Brazil. Methods: Women visiting BEMFAM’s clinics from January 2012 until March 2013 filled a self-administered questionnaire based on psychometric scale. The economic burden was measured with a retrospective study of medical chart review of patients assisted form January 2009 to December 2010. Results: A total of 122 individuals filled the psychosocial questionnaire. Women with normal Pap smear presented lower scores of worries and concerns about gynecological health than women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or GW and higher scores of satisfaction with sexual life than women with CIN or GW. Feelings of anxiety and surprise with the last exam were higher in GW group than for normal Pap smear and CIN groups. Each GW episode lasted on average 132 days, had 6 medical visits and costs US$ 139. Conclusion: The economic burden of GW is closely related to psychosocial burden, and the use of health services after a GW episode should be considered in future research. The study of indirect costs is important, considering the number of visits per episode of GW. Additional studies are needed and can help in the advocacy efforts for a comprehensive prevention programs in Brazil.


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Author Biographies

Mônica Gomes de Almeida

MD, MSc, Medical Director, Bem Estar Familiar no Brasil (BEMFAM) – Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil.

Antônio Márcio Tavares Thomé

DSc, Evaluation Director, Evaluation and Statistics Department, BEMFAM– Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil,

José Berilo Lima Filho

Statistician, Evaluation and Statistics, BEMFAM – Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil.



How to Cite

Almeida, M. G. de, Thomé, A. M. T., & Lima Filho, J. B. (2022). The psychosocial and economic burden of genital warts among women assisted in six sexual and reproductive health clinics in Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 25(4), 196–201. Retrieved from



Original Article